Osteoporosis is a much talked about lifestyle condition which targets the elder strata of the society and is silent killer. Osteoporosis is associated with bone fragility and resulting fractures which presses the alarm button.
Osteoporosis has been operationally defined on the basis of mineral density (BMD) assessment .According to the WHO criteria , operationally is defined as a BMD that lies 2.5 standard deviations or more below the average value of young healthy women (a T-score of <2.5 SD)
The purpose of it being talked about topics in the essence whether it is preventable and if so how?
Regular exercise improves health in many ways. People who engage in regular exercises have lower rates of depression, heart disease, dementia, cancer, diabetes and many other chronic diseases
If you have Osteoporosis or low bone mass or have broken a bone from miner event such falling from a standing height or doing simple task definitely you are at risk of osteoporosis.
Benefits of exercises
Exercise is the one of the most effective lifestyle strategies to help make bones strong , reducing the risk of fractures later in life .Improving and maintaining the bone density , exercises increase the size , strength and capacity of muscles. Exercises must be regular and ongoing to have a proper benefit.
Exercises best for preventing osteoporosis
- Weight bearing exercises
- Strength training exercises
- Posture training
- Balance training
Weight bearing exercises
Weight Bearing exercises are the most effective forms of exercises for maintain the strong bones. Exercise is especially important for old women, who have higher rate of bine tissue lose after menopause.
Two types of weight-bearing exercise: high-impact and low-impact.
High-impact includes workouts like:
- Brisk walking
- Climbing stairs
- Jumping rope
- Step aerobics
- Tennis or other racquet sports
Talk to your physiotherapist about your workout routine. She/he may recommend that you focus on low-impact exercises that are less likely to cause fractures and still build up your bone density.
- Elliptical training machines
- Low-impact aerobics
- Stair-step machines
- Walking (either outside or on a treadmill machine)
If you’re new to exercise or haven’t worked out for a while, you should aim to gradually increase the amount you do until you get to 30 minutes of weight-bearing exercise per day on most days of the week.
Strength training exercises
Strength training exercises is mainly focused on making the muscles work harder and strengthening them and thereby reducing falls which is major issue in the geriatric population.
Equipment’s commonly used are free weights, therabands , swimming ,cycling are good means strength training .Progression again has to be slow and well calculated.
Bad postures crate imbalances in the opposite side of the body resulting in pain ,stiffness, contracture on one side and lengthening an opposite of the body .these all can lead to fall and fracture .
Exercises focusing on spinal extension, core muscle strengthening, abdominal exercises. Arm/shoulder exercises.
Exercise that improves balance and co ordination can also reduce falls and fractures. Utmost acre is taken while imparting such exercises ensuring that the surface is non-skid ,stable , there is a stable support nearby when the patient losses the balance all a sudden .It is done 2 3 days in week for 10-20 minutes
Stretching exercises are safer and easier and must precede with proper warm up and end with a proper cool down .Stretching of all major groups of muscle must be done.
If you have osteoporosis, don’t do the following types of exercises:
High-impact exercises. Activities such as jumping, running or jogging can lead to fractures in weakened bones. Avoid jerky, rapid movements in general. Choose exercises with slow, controlled movements. If you’re generally fit and strong despite having osteoporosis, however, you might be able to engage in somewhat higher-impact exercise than can someone who is frail.
Bending and twisting. Exercises in which you bend forward at the waist and twist your waist, such as touching your toes or doing sit-ups, can increase your risk of compression fractures in your spine if you have osteoporosis. Other activities that may require you to bend or twist forcefully at the waist are golf, tennis, bowling and some yoga poses.
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